GUM: from the foundation to the present
The modern capital is buried in the bright lights of shops and shopping centers. There are more than 200 shopping centers in Moscow, but one of the most popular and prestigious is GUM, the main department store located in the very heart of the capital. What is this prestigious place today and how its history has developed.
Time of occurrence
The Main Universal Store of the capital received its name, which still operates today in 1921. Until that time, the Upper Trading Rows were located on the territory of the modern mall, the construction of which was planned by Catherine II. The shopping center is not only one of the most luxurious in Moscow, but also belongs to the category of architectural monuments.
History of creation
GUM is a historical architectural monument, which is under the protection of the State. Located in the very center of the capital, the shopping center was built on the site of the shopping malls operating here. They were built in the XIX century and were the largest passage in Europe. During the construction of trade rows on the site of GUM, the capital was transformed after the reforms of Alexander II. At that time, the shopping arcade was a symbol of a new, changed capital. They resembled the markets of Damascus and the passages of Milan.
In 1889, a competition was held for the best design of new trading rows. After the old ones were demolished, in their place, in just 4 years, new rows were erected under a glass roof designed by Alexander Pomerantsev.
In 1922, GUM became the main propaganda of the new economic policy of Lenin. In the mid-twentieth century, Stalin twice planned to demolish GUM, but after his death in 1953, the new rulers were not up to this shopping center, and over time, it gradually began to revive.
In the 1930s, a competition was announced for the construction of a high-rise on the territory of Red Square. Initially, a project involving the construction of a building on the territory of GUM was considered. The building of the most popular metropolitan malls was nearly demolished, but as a result another project won, and a high-rise building was erected on the site of the modern Zaryadye park.
In the 50s GUM was restored. The renovated interior, facades and partial layout were to the liking of residents and guests of the capital. Another renovation began in the 70s. It ended only in 1985. The last restoration works on the territory of GUM were carried out in 2011-2012. At this time, the facades of the building were also partially renovated and its interior redesigned. In 2012, in the basement of GUM, it was recreated according to projects stored in the archives of the public toilet. Strangely enough, but this restroom also became one of the attractions of GUM.
Noteworthy is the architecture of the complex, which consists of three longitudinal and three transverse galleries, combined in 16 buildings. Each gallery has an unusual lighting, which, along with the interior of the shopping center, sets the theme for drowning in luxury.
The main tenant of GUM is the famous brand Bosco di Ciliegi. The main specialization of the company is the sale of luxury goods. Brand products are expensive and not suitable for everyone.
GUM is the most prestigious store of the capital. Its area is 103,000 square meters. On the territory of GUM there are more than 1,000 brand stores specializing in the sale of clothing, sporting goods, jewelry and bijoux. The main department store is not a family or entertainment complex. Many Muscovites and guests of the capital know that this place is not for everyone. It is considered pathetic and belongs to the class of luxury.
The famous fountain again works in the center of GUM, and on the ground floor the famous Gastronom No.1 has been operating since the 19th century.